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Iraqi Constitution
Session Discussion for Iraqi Parliament


Second session/ Second period/ Fourth Year

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Session Discussion for Iraqi Parliament Foundation Madark

Prosecutors parliamentary
Concept and maturity of the future of Iraq

A. Flowered Jassim Saadi
A. D. Hassan Mohammed Shafiq
A. M.. D. Amer Hassan Fayyad
A. M.. D. Abdul Ahmed Daljabbar
A. Shehab Ahmed Fadhli
A. Shamkhi Jabr

A. Mezher: In the beginning I thank the distinguished guests invited to the franchisee loop panel discussion, which is keen perceptions to be set up to deal with a particular concept abused Iraqis, taking a serious and genuine without any red lines.

D. Amer: Center perceptions took it upon himself within his short time and long and large cognitive addresses topics that occupy the mind and the mind of political culture. Today, within the framework of the concerns of this center and the concerns of its journal (Journal of the perceptions we put on the table for discussion and dialogue in place (experiment Iraqi parliamentary) that address this issue falls within the notion Nahj adage which says "people's enemies are ignorant" and actually when people do not understand is simplest and shortest interaction with him is antagonism.

Parliamentary idea and system and application phenomenon and, perhaps within the framework of the concepts that were not yet the subject of preoccupation or cared for, maybe even elite cognitive or intellectual elite Iraqi. So I took this magazine it upon themselves to deal with the concept of parliamentary unconditionally Fastdat number of professionals and others Mahtmuten Eduard parliamentary and topics of intellectual and cognitive them Prof. Dr. Hassan Mohammed, a professor at the Faculty of Political Science University of Baghdad and Prof. Dr. Abdul Jabbar Ahmed Abdullah, a professor at the Faculty of Political Science Among the interested subjects of cultural and cognitive who know them well, Mr. Shihab and the best sons of this institution as an institution over who know themselves and others he knew I thought, speech directed to Dr. Hassan We need to talk about the foundations of the building parliamentary. If we assume that the parliamentary building what are the foundations of this concept?

D. Hassan: Starting thank Center perceptions for the opportunity to address the issue of the concept of parliamentary and also used in the lectures that we speak about political issues say that the word parliamentary indicate in terms of language to the Latin root (Parle), which is the root of Latino gives meaning to speak (speak) then pulled the word to mean the place where you can talk and this word and a long era used to express the Council shall be elected to serve as general interest topics addressed. But now become a political Ndham-called system of Parliament. Now, talking about the experience and how it started? The fact that this experiment began in England in the thirteenth century, specifically in the year one thousand two hundred and ninety-five, met knights and nobles, while they thought the family of King met to discuss the crisis got one thousand two hundred and fifteen any in the thirteenth century as the king (Jean Sans Land) also called, has promised nobility that will guarantee them their rights if returned to the throne that he had participated in the crusade after his return from the Crusade through France found that his brother had shifted from the throne and this is called (Jean Santer) any king without land . Then promised to return their nobles so that they are the owners of property in their fortresses and their properties and does not interfere in terms of a special property. Of course, included an agreement to sixty-five vertebra called PAL (Mcnacarta) any covenant greatest, but what happened to the Kings continued Pinhjhm which they are owners of slaves and owners of the money and did not allow any party to be shared by their power absolute, if not tyrannical. When he found the nobles and knights that (Almcnacarta) neglected part of the Constitution Testament greatest part of the British Constitution is written as it is known, most provisions of the Constitution of England are the texts of customary But this written document for this protested nobles and knights and held a meeting and a meeting that was to build the current parliament It is an old church diocese old found in London where they met and decided to work in the light of the claim of this document and the British is also known as the English or their call them people cling to traditions and customs and to a large extent to the present day they have no written constitution.

D. Amer: Sorry Doctor before reaching the current period to talk about the subject of this idea parliamentary gesture to began with (Almcnacarta) or Covenant great as we called then moved to the level of organization of this institution became her powers up the scientific first the validity of the institution in council is As the master of Aziz Jassim in his book that the first Omajalsé rights that were to this Council before it turns into parliament are the rights of legislative and we know that the basic function of Parliament is to enact legislation.

I want to say that the parliamentary process is the historical and historical process evolved accumulated did not show the form in which we know it today. I hope that we address for the first rights, according to a scientific first is the right to register What do we mean the right of registration? As I said kindly and that the presence of the great era does not mean limiting the powers of the king and his absolute power. But this institution that emerged, which the Council, this Council is the first function is a function exercised the right to register What do we mean by that?

We mean that the king when he was issued an order or decision, this decision must be recorded. The function of the Council is to register this decision and keep a record of this matter. Note that the decision is not a king shall be effective only after scoring in this Council. This named right recording was a first under (weak) the powers of kings.

The process of keeping the record in the Council aims to legalize the king's authority absolute, especially if we take into account that, during the centuries (XIII XIV XV) was the king's power in Europe Mtaleghomen here and in order to limit the authority they seek to Ntakhir registration orders, so as not to be subject to implementation until being traded and debate and then persuade the King to restore Alndrfaita. simply want to point out that the institution of Parliament began this size simple then took a long time for it to evolve to have reached now, and we have to take into account this context we discuss this topic, diagnose mistakes, and we study Araqilh and then evaluate his experience.

D. Hassan: in fact, the British love and adore the traditions and customs As we are talking about a system of parliamentary I wish to refer to the subject of the emergence of Parliament as we know right now who became behind at the present time than it was in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. And a great development got parliamentary experience. Transition from absolute power of the king to the authority of Parliament took a long struggle between the two parties. We must not forget that the British knew that there revolutions Malkin spent after the revolution led by the Parliament against the king's authority. What I would like to mention is that the abandonment of the Kings for their power came through a bitter struggle. I also noted that the British were Lords refuse to meet with the public, which is why we have become the Council of Lords and House of Commons. The social nature of the British people separated between the House of Lords and House of Commons All-knowing that they are not elected by then, but was not selected by the House of Lords who did not have titles of Lords.

D. Amer: Dr. want to say that the mechanism of the elections were not associated with the presence of its existence with the Parliament and the parliaments were Bcilséa you according to the mechanism of appointment, not election.

D. Hassan: Do not list on the basis of excellence; campaign titles Lord and knights who are relatives of the king who once owned and loss of land and estates who were entering parliament.

D. Amer: Ear and function of this institution began advisory and not legislative.

D. Hassan: with a conflict between their authority and the authority of the king, the authority which took comply slowly through (Almcnacarta) in Britain. And do not forget it's there in the British Constitution is the Constitution of customary written texts such as (Almcnacarta) (1215) in the Bill of Rights (Alawfraas) (1629) also made the list, to save the independence of the judiciary. And fair trials. There is also an Act of Parliament in 1679 itself would be to allow y Wei detainees that their captors demand appearance before the court to consider their cases, in order to release or trial. This law is one of the most important he gets the general public. In (1689) after the second revolution initiated law guaranteeing individual liberty; not controlled kings on the capabilities of things and the recognition of private property and the recognition of the rights of individuals. However power remained in the parliament monopolized by the House of Lords, and not to the general public. Did not appear as a whole represent the people only in (1832) in the nineteenth century. As led imperialist wars, which claimed the lives of a lot of the general public to fear of Lords revolution, prompting them to give some concession to the lack of make up only four percent of the British people to choose their representatives. That was the general reform (1832) giving the right to vote to four percent of the property owners and property that vote and choose their representatives are in the parliament.

A. Shihab: Sorry Dr. think that the Industrial Revolution and including created from turning so create a new layer does not belong to the feudalism which constitutes the nobility and their representatives and this new layer was more revolutionary, movement and vitality so acquired (capital) made of strong enough in terms of material even stronger than the nobles , so they forced the nobles and under the pressure of the rise of this layer and enable them to acquire a lot of loss of property and to recognize their rights and were not even belong in their relationship or kinship to the monarchy or to Lords. The emergence of this class confirmed historical fact that the new classes downtrodden started to work on the surface strongly believe that different economic factor and one of the main reasons that led to the entry of all the people to the political life of the time.

D. Amer: This is the vocabulary that drive us to talk about the parliament as a historical phenomenon. Can not be the emergence of the parliamentary institution for once and completely and forever institutions generate births and birth continue this form are cumulative. It reminded me of Mr. Fadhli issue of subordination of the parliamentary institution of multiple dimensions. Have to have a political dimension, a dimension of the transition from absolute power to power restricted. The social dimension is the fact that the parliamentary presumption particular social group or is it related to all social groups? Including equal association with the rise and fall of a social group another class? Eduard economically reminded me of the industrial revolution and the economic dimension that is associated with Balbrlmanah sense that when the economic situation in a specific historical stage as if the economic situation primitive Is there a possibility of return to the presence of Parliament or that it is linked to economic development phase or specific. Cultural dimension which translates link Parliamentary idea and as a spread of scientific mentality in society. Is that the pattern of rational thinking, for example tied to a parliamentary or a pattern of thinking individual and collective not.

The question that arises now is: Is there an instance of the parliamentary experience in the Middle?

D. Hassan: West had exercised colonial role in many parts of the world and the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are France, Britain and Amtdadathma as it is known since the sixteenth century in India and China. In Europe, we must not forget the importance of the discovery of North and South Americas discovery that helped lift Europe from the dire economic conditions to economic conditions very different. Some thinkers linking the discovery of America and the revolution, industrial.

D. Amer: Sorry Dr. I do not mind that we take various topics and then come back later to Mahorna Parliamentary.

D. Hassan: I go back to what the parliamentary evolution in Britain and across Europe and the Third World. Parliamentary experiences different variety has started in Britain, but Europe did not know any parliamentary only recently in the late nineteenth century. The spread Aalberlmanah in Europe has been uneven between regions Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox. He noted that Max Weber to honestly when he said that the Constitution or the parliamentary spread in areas Protestantism by Catholic and Orthodox doctrinal reasons. Because when Protestantism arose, arose on the ideas of liberal, such as freedom of the individual and the freedom to act .. "Reza God for the person who gives his wealth., And when someone is not pleased with Vsadil poor.

Generally spread ideas of Protestantism and spread with liberal ideas and individual liberty, and the formation of parliaments, and then the separation of powers, and the rule of law, etc. of liberal theories, which came out with us John Locke when he published his book in 1690, and that within Two articles about the civilian government. Of course, we can not fail to recall that Luke wrote his books in the Netherlands because he could not be written and published in Britain. Considering that the Netherlands was a refuge for free. Generally touched Locke in Mqalth for representation and the dissenting opinion and civil society, etc. of the ideas that became the share of Iraqis to speak about today.

D. Amer: Doctor I want to ask about this development .. I do not want to say that we are committed to Marxism or Marxism Eduard self-European, but this development that took place in the West is there against him in the East.

D. Hassan: what happened and as I said earlier that Britain and France were already Aqtzmta to some extent the world, before the emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union, Verada to convey their experience of parliamentary, and this is what was actually after the First World War when they were sharing areas in Asia, Africa and some Europe, Britain and France were taken Tgrepettihama and their institutions to those areas.

For example for Iraq which is closest to us, when the Constitution was issued in 1920, was a copy of the British system, the existence of property and the presence of Parliament or the Senate and the House of Representatives confirms this. The National Assembly consists of two chambers, one appointed council, which is similar to the House of Lords in Britain, and there is the prime minister responsible to parliament.

D. Amer: So we're talking about Dr. plants transferred to soil Oriental, and I want to ask you that this plant was transferred to soil suitable for growth? Is there a reception for this plant? If there is a reception we refer to inherited this soil. Is there a sense of what helps to embrace this plant? As a reminder, I can give an example Modootai Shura and representation. Is there a rapprochement between the Shura Council and parliamentary representation?

D. Hassan: There are experiments with regard to the application of the parliamentary system in the Arab world, including the Egyptian experience and the Iraqi experience. Egyptian experience, which established the parliament, and the Iraqi National Assembly established. If we exclude this testing set up by France in Lebanon or the Levant in general. Or in Morocco and Algeria later. Generally when applied experiments were not successful parliamentary never, and there is a message about the Master deviation parliamentary system in Iraq is still an important reference to know the reasons for the failure of parliamentary experience in our country. Amavi Musrvqdjabh parliament problem enable the government always stop work and prevent him from using his powers constitutionally known, and there is a lack of acceptance by the public to the idea of ​​Parliament as a Western Garcia in the Arab land.

A. Shamkhi: Dr. Amer you focus on a specific placed is the authority on the concept of the traditional Arab Parliament, for example, the recommendation of Omar bin Khattab (ra) to form what is called the Shura Council or the influential people. As well as the position of the reformists or the Renaissance, such as Muhammad Abduh, and attitudes and acceptance Naini conditionality in Iran.

D. Hassan: the idea of ​​conditionality occurred establishment of the first test the constitutionality of the Ottoman Empire in (1876) during the reign of Sultan Abdul Hamid when set up the first constitution in a Muslim country in the region ĂÓáÇăíÉ has ​​objected objectors that this Constitution does not agree with the Koran, Qur'an is the constitution and this had yet less than a year to repeal it.

A. Shamkhi: Leroy Ali pink that Abdul Halim second instructed to many of the religious authorities to form committees cultural to educate on the Constitution, Parliament and conditionality are against Islam and the whole culture of the invasion and represent the colonizers, and so was the position of Kazem Yazdi, who tells that he was against the conditional Sayadi also against conditional.

D. Hassan: in Iran when she appeared conditional and appeared Constitution (1905) there was a fatwa against the Constitution, Shirazi, I think, gave an advisory opinion struck down.

D. Amer: For the Iraqi experience that received the newcomer any thought democracy, including Parliament placed the receiver I think crack even in religious frame of reference. We note that Yazdi was against conditionality while Khorasani was with her. Was Naini with conditionality with democracy and with parliamentary outcome. I want to emphasize that the Arab cultural heritage was not parliamentary but Asthoudarh by Naini and Muhammad is His slave and interplanetary and other flags enlightened in that period was in order to prove that there is a good atmosphere for the reception of the newcomer.

Understanding of democracy and the parliamentary paid Shura they develop in spite of the Shura in my opinion is not a parliamentary democracy or but provide the atmosphere of democracy.

D. Abdul-Jabbar: Yes on the subject, who talked about the Middle and parliamentary there.

First, that Islam did not know Parliament and this is natural because the parliamentary institution and an Islam there is no governing institutions can evolve Us Xia Vxia. This deficiency in men of Islam, not Islam.

What the Omar Ibn al-Khattab (ra) and even carried out by the Prophet (peace be upon him) in the framework of the Shura was not binding enough to establish the institution moving towards the opinion of the public in government. What the Prophet (PBUH) did not confirm the contents of the Shura as an institution as it was confirmed by the practice of certain not conducive to building institution, as happened in Britain this first.

Second, we must remember the concept of oriental despotism, because the concept of oriental despotism, which is equal to the acceptance or non-acceptance idea of ​​institutions and if we link this issue with the idea of ​​democracy and constitutional appropriate for the eastern regions. And we link the other hand, usury experiment parliamentary Albraitanihokzlk On the issue of taxation and the replacement of a layer with a layer and the fall of feudalism and feudal decay role versus the role of the bourgeois. And the emergence of the middle class associated with the Western parliamentary framework. Do we have a middle class we are in Islam, or that the influential people representing this class. If they are, it is are the people of the solution and the contract and what Mahdeddathm. Regardless of their contract to sell private or public pledge of allegiance, but what are the joints of the other life that can Ieljoha their decisions.

There is also the term state river in Mesopotamia and the country's Nile and asset historical there were not states Michdah but central rule because of the presence of the river, which produces the Mrkzaat Herein lies the paradox can approach or the comparison between the River Thames in Britain and production of the central government or pluralism. With respect to the State (rentier) and its relation to newly oil-Is that the presence of oil, for example, and the rentier state and obtaining tax facilitate the middle class or not. As for the comparison between the Shura and democracy that is a problem secular and non-secular. In origin and within the Islamic orientation of them rejected the idea of ​​Shura, not in the sense its presence Quranic refused but refused being valid ground to actually establish the rule of Muslims on the basis of democracy. Private and there is no Aaadaelchory binding. Therefore there is no link tried to compromise named her (Alcheroukratih) in the sense mixing between democracy, which is the Greek origin and Shura, which is ĂÓáÇăíÉ asset, but we all must agree on a general framework that Islam unfortunately did not know the idea of ​​building institutions. There was the tolerance there was justice there was flexibility there to hear the opinion of the mosque was there to hear the opinion in the question of war, but unfortunately not determined points in the joints of this particular along with some stipulations economic certain requirements cultural not available in the environment of modern Islamic Alan.

D. Amer: So let's talk now about the determinants of parliamentary elections. If we reviewed the experience we will notice that the first European Current limitations are placed representation and election, should there be representation by election. And second is the institutional determinants must be there institutions, including the parliamentary institution. The third determinant is a specific obligation when they take a decision to this institution or practice and lowly, which is essentially a legislative and guest must have this legislation binding. Now hold these determinants and convey to the Iraqi experiment Iraqi experiment known parliamentary Since the formation of the modern Iraqi state When a constitution and form a constituent assembly before that which put the Constitution and the Constituent Assembly is the representative council one way or another, whether elections or two degrees one degree.

D. Hassan: With respect to parliamentary experience of Iraq, an experience over the more than fifty years say that the ruling elite that are the same did not accept the idea of ​​parliamentary, and only what we explain the announcement case law and dissolution of Parliament only to the presence of ten opponents in the House consists of one hundred and thirty-four, mostly representatives of the government. If you do not transfer them they appointed by the government by acclamation. Not bear Nuri Said ten opponents stallion Parliament and declared martial law. If there were not customary provisions and conditions of unusual and unnatural to enthuse people to support the uprising by the military. There was a revolution in (1958) that have occurred within the atmosphere and the exceptional circumstances and the provisions of customary and newspapers and Off Off parties. Parliament and the Council was chosen by acclamation to the lack of opposition to competition. As the National Front withdrew from the elections and left the field to represent random.

D. Amer: This pessimistic outlook for the parliamentary experience and there is this fresh look. We said that as a parliamentary subject to change an issue cumulative issue is not possible to be mature in to urge him birth. We need to give birth, childbirth difficult and growth difficult. Also parliamentary experience of (1920) onwards is an experience in the process of growth and certainly there were errors and deviations, but these mistakes and these deviations you justify the position of anti-parliamentary hear Mr. Fadhli

A. Shihab: Refer a bit back to the social order, at the time of the Ottoman Empire Iraq laced feudal relations. At the moment of entering the Englishmen to Iraq and bring the democratic experiment or the so-called democracy and the establishment of a system and a modern state turned our relational rather than feudalism turned the problem semi-colonial semi-feudal means a British when transferred experience of the colonial countries tried to Erbtoha Pfllekem through treaties and through the economy. Even in the economic trends evidence does not appear economic class actor, despite the emergence of the bourgeoisie, the private sector has had to attend and give concessions, but the bourgeoisie that existed and when observing morphological state consisting of the king and his family and clan elders who have obtained their land and Aqtaayatem of the Ottoman Empire in order to ensure their loyalty and loyalty to their families through them. If we consider that this layer can be the seed layer bourgeoisie, like the leaders of the reform in the West, we find that the damage came from the lack of investment this class for its money in investments that could promote the economic and social reality.

Bourgeois class is the basis of evolution in the parliamentary. Parliament and grew up in my opinion on the ideas of liberalism. And now the West bemoans the first liberal in its infancy. And bemoans the individual freedom. Azla there are now individual freedom in the West as in the past, Western man suffocated under a new kind of colonialism types of exploitation suffered by the great; political and economic. For the current Iraqi experience.

D. Amer: to postpone our assessment of the experience of current and remain within the limits of state-building in their twenties, and I have a simple comment, I understand from your words, of course with your eagerness to topic Saciologih idea parliamentary certainly on social relations and class and hierarchy, etc. There is structure a delegation to Iraq in 1920 and beyond. Structure modern and traditional padding brutal. I arrived parliamentary institution to Iraq, but who are parliamentarians? The idea of ​​political parties arrived to Iraq, but how these parties formed? I arrived governmental institutions of modern existence ministries and the Prime Minister and so on, but who are ministers? What is the mechanism chosen? This is the traditional stuffing. So we have a modern structure stuffed padding traditional. This is what I understood from your words, in the sense that when the parliamentary meant to be built in a specific political community, it needs to factors and conditions and data are identical with modern parliament. When we talk about individual freedom as the basis for the life of the parliamentary and elections in a society in which sovereignty of the group over the individual, and the individual does not determine its value and dignity only through the group to which he belongs Allehaultkn clan, for example, or national, elections in such societies can not be integrated or even natural, since individual choice does not exist. Distortions in the parliamentary experience of Iraq royal derived from that structure was a modern civilized structure and filling the traditional non-civilized

D. Abdljabbar: If we want to evaluate the experience in parliamentary monarchy, we have to stop in order not to do wrong this experience. There are palaces Mtata of the system of parliamentary Nevshaohnak palaces from outside, and also prefer Dr. Hassan parliamentary experience in Britain since (1215) and so far there is an evolutionary process, and I want to disagree with Mr. Shahab-Fadhli in denial of freedom for experiments parliamentary Bank, on the contrary I think that Afrathm to liberty them need to codify this freedom, and this is another topic, is not incompatible with freedom, civil liberty They live in an integrated manner. Overall experience evolve since (1215) and so far out, but without all the constants. If we say that the democratic experiment before parliamentary question is becoming not only building structurally. In other words building and institution building human being, layer and culture. In my evaluation There are pros many in our experience of parliamentary, but unfortunately the circuit for this experiment was cut off because of what happened in 1958 and regardless of the fact that that happened revolution or coup Good or bad, but the pieces that got prevent parliamentary experience that will continue to support themselves and complement construction. There constants features and claimed the underlying and could be based upon building a parliamentary good not for this pieces which focus since 1963 and even 2003.

Generally there may be no multi-party system but there were political pluralism, and in the two periods in (1923) and the second since the (1946) onwards, there may be certain restrictions or framing what the rights of citizens. But when I read the Constitution (1920) I find it an excellent experience, it is true that it was based on the experience of British experts. But he was already on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Yes, there are regulations and the French Declaration of the U.S., but in all the constitutions of the Arab states do not say announcement of the French Revolution to human rights, but the Universal Declaration of years (1948). The Iraqi constitution includes a lot of rights.

Yes it must be recognized Ptdmenh of macho, but it was clear masculine justified within the social context of the year (1925). Unlike male, which we will talk about for the experience (2005). So there were positive within the system becoming democracy, but some deficiencies in the machine parliamentary, which bear some of the political elites or pressure the British or feudal relations, but in general, including the inertial find that parliamentary experience means (not the president's responsibility) in front of the parliament and the selection of Parliament to the Prime Minister Officials and ministers are in front of him; meaning the likelihood of legislative power to the executive, but what happened in the experiment is put the property on the executive legislature. If the process transfers to Iraq and the British, as we know, the King of Britain differs in the Iraqi experience, and the financial dimension of economic differs between the two experiences in the British experience be the responsibility of the Iraqi parliament contrary. I say there was a failure, but he was in the process of treatment for not cutting the circle that occurred in (1958).

D. Amer: Ok in the evaluation of a brief period between (1923) to (1958), What can we say it, in order to move on to assess the current experience.

D. Abdul-Jabbar: The Parliament in the monarchy hereditary in the absence of quotas is much better to build political awareness of Parliament out of frames ownership genetic, but based on quotas.

A. Shahab: The construction of political and social awareness, generally as an estimate of the experience of the time of the monarchy I think that in this experiment a lot of positives have made rights in Iraq felt the meaning of the democratic system, but there are pitfalls and setbacks in the S system, not in the social aspect of it borne by the system and relations system. This means that the policy followed by the bear in my setbacks and lack of representation system correctly.

D. Hassan: For the experiment in the monarchy I want to describe in one word: is the (deficit). Parliament was unable to, there were men and state but there was no parliamentarians and the proof is that the period since (1925) and even (1958) witnessed the dissolution of parliament for a period of sixteen times.

While Parliament does not have even a one-time no-confidence in the government, can I describe this experience without the word disability.

D. Amer: We have talked about Dr. Abdul Jabbar placed estrangement since the parliamentary (1958 to 2003.

D. Hassan: not since (1958) and even in (1980).

D. Amer: you mean the experience of the National Council, but I set one year (2003) I mean a system democratic integrated include multi-party elections and a free press and respect for human rights, all these items constitute one system, interference, including the parliamentary institution, as we are not talking about Parliament as Foundation, one only, but after part of the system is an integrated system of democracy

D. Hassan: as a system, yes experiment hit estrangement.

In (1970) A book for a French professor you have requested a title (the parliament to work why?), Says it is ironic that we Talegna French Parliament intended in the Constitution (1951), however, show brochures in Eastern Europe calls for parliamentary as a way to democracy. I want to say: that democracy as a system and as defined by the few no longer owns the old luster, which makes it occupies an important place. Now in France if people wanted to pretend for the demands do not go to Parliament, but to the same ministry sponsor requests itself., Or the prime minister or the Republic, no longer deal with the Parliament Cassapq their reign, and Parliament itself had waived his legislative and since (1924 ) since the crisis after World War I, when I went to the Parliament demanding the masses necessities to live and could not do anything to them as a concession to the government to leave her appropriate legislation to resolve the crisis. The result became Parliament authorizes the government and on an annual basis, the legislative authority, and since World War II has become waived every six months for his authority in favor of the government. That is when the Constitution was promulgated in (1950) in France, we find that many of the privileges of Parliament turned him.

D. Amer: However, this government instead of relying upon Parliament is in fact a parliamentary industry.

D. Hassan: not made of Parliament, but by the offices of political parties. Its presence in Parliament is a representation of parties in Parliament.

D. Amer: This does not claim to say no need to Parliament and only the government. When the government can not be received and executive functions is to be supported and leaning on Parliament. Yes I agree with you that there is a tendency towards a global concentration of power in the world. There tendency towards a global decline in the roles of parliamentary phenomenon, but governments Her roles actual, concrete and concrete are made parliamentary governments.

The result may seem Parliament in front of people is weak compared to the power of the executive branch. But the government can not do alone. And when you come election cycle, these other strong government will need to support the majority of the parliament, the government is premised upon strength of Parliament.

We have to be wary of the idea put forward disappearance of parliamentary or parliamentary death. The understood as a call to blow up lined democracy.

D. Hassan: I'm not saying the death of the parliament, but the phenomenon of reaction the role of parliament and technical reasons, not personal or ideological. The work of Parliament is based on discussion, dialogue and give and take, and the fact Fbhajh urgent decisions. For example, the government can represented the Council of Ministers to issue a decision within one hour to be able to overcome the crisis of political or economic, while the case in Parliament, that such a decision could take months.

D. Amer: I'm not saying to prevent the executive branch from exercising a legislative role, but it must have, it is possible to propose laws, or proposes to the instructions on the laws approved parliamentary

D. Hassan: bills from the jurisdiction of the government, and suggested the jurisdiction of Parliament, what is happening in the world now? Winning is that the percentage of projects outweigh the proportion of the proposals. Worldwide projects because more technical and artistic possibilities in government more available existence of so-called bureaucracy in the government, any direct specialists, in Parliament are not available this possibility, directly.

D. Abdul-Jabbar: In this window there Encyclopedia talking about parliamentary systems in the Third World, where the systems are divided into: a purely parliamentary and now total in all countries of the world (56) state only. Then states presidential Pure, and there participating States, presidential and parliamentary elections. What he was talking about Dr. Hassan, very sound, dual system In France, the Parliament and the President of the Republic. In the Maghreb Prime Minister Onfrd the King on the grounds that the king is here real powers must keep in mind that there is no bilateral there a strong authority of the Republic is not waived, which Iasm experience of deviation. Reflected the case when there is a parliamentary system does not know is it or is it a common exchange or presidential? Another example: Pakistan and India both trials parliamentary committees and speech spins at the level of decision-making military strategy, because Pakistan bilateral, so the president governs with a parliament, in India there is a President of the Republic just for power, as it is, however, Prime Minister, we find that the discussions about the speed of decision-making military confrontation, many are likely to be in the Pakistani experience faster, because the President of the Republic has the authorities. Yes perhaps the most democratic is India, but the speed of the decision in the presidential experiments.

D. Amer: So what about the experience of Iraq's parliamentary between (2003 to 2006)? Starting from Cklleha down to her job now?

D. Abdul-Jabbar: I've put some points that are contrary to some of the requirements and the basic components in parliamentary experience, acceptable corrective fundamental constant, is not subject to any mood.

First, there must be head of state is responsible, we can not talk about the existence of a parliamentary system head official.

Secondly, also provide the Ministry parliamentary assets arise from within the parliament and the government in its functions, within the so-called solidarity of responsibility.

Third, to represent every member of the nation, with an elected parliament periodically and be accountable to the government.

But what happened over the three trials could be called Bmgulwbah Parliament. Imposed parliament that forms the government, in the real experiences. But what happened in the Iraqi experience that is the government which constitute the Parliament, in our experience the electoral and from the formation of electoral lists and election law, and so on have been inspired by the catches of the decision, and those who call them I government. And thus became the Parliament is unable to hold the government accountable in the event of failure, and so repeated the experiment of ownership, with evidence that the Parliament can not obscure the confidence of the Minister and one of its ministers. The reason is that the nature of the formation of the government came through so-called quota system. User in our Parliament represents the party, which is propped and supported by him, and thus the government is the sum of wills parties, not parliament.

D. Amer: mean even fateful decisions related fate of the people, discuss and decide on them outside the Parliament building.

D. Abdul-Jabbar: Yes Outside parliament, and in this issue some pros and cons of it, and if we want to cultivate democratic awareness, it would be fatal to this awareness. This first, second, what I want to name it the privilege of awareness and consciousness concession, any correspondence between the MP and Member of the House of Representatives, and Bmana last of which goes to Parliament? Bookworm? Trader? Illiterate? Chieftain? Or man party organization?

As a result of what happened the nature of the formation of the government and U.S. pressure Incidentally year (1925) there was a British pressure and pressure clerics and tribesmen and currents that do not fit the traditional and the idea of ​​liberalism and secularism. When running for Parliament is not a document of the standard economic nor the standard liberal, that is, when restricted to the standard partisan, it Sasbg Parliament dye specific, partisan. In the sense that parliamentarians can sit and make a time earlier Cantona distribute through seats on the blocks prosecution. But if the logic of liberalism and Hakmnahm asked .. How MP candidacy as that dealer or a liberal or ignorant? In other words, how much income parliament deputy from the door of an economic or a liberal or cultural? We will find that the seats have not been distributed on the basis of caste and cultural nor on what basis is the foundation partisan, but only certain parties and not openly. Unfortunately became deputy Through Sjalath in Parliament looking for an opportunity to appear in front of the TV to stir emotions viewer simple, as when a student member of parliament replace mobile U.S. phones Iraqna bill, and I enter this thread what I call the awareness of privilege, not a privilege awareness, It is not necessarily invalid.

D. Amer: Parliament deputies are not required to be liberal dogma, but are required to be liberal in dealing with each other. When be a member of parliament and an optimal current leftist, it is my right to keep my thoughts. But I have to be a liberal and I deal with a right-wing member of parliament, turned to the difference. In the sense that liberalism conditioned in the membership of Parliament not as a dogma, but as a mechanism to deal between the blocs. Notably, the blocks liberal in Parliament, weak, and strong blocs refuse to deal with the different other Blabralah.

A. Flowered: Why can not the parliamentary blocs that are liberal values ​​in dealing with the different?

D. Amer: I think that this theme relationship pattern thinking mind the Iraqi politician who lacks many of the ingredients that would enable it to deal with the other liberal. Iraqi political mind and I mean all political forces in Iraq operates on the basis of stubborn political and not political participation. Principle adopted is the principle of quotas, which talked about Dr. Abdul Jabbar. And not the principle of participation, if adopted the principle of political participation will be dialogue and discussion is the master of the situation while the political stubbornness is the master of the situation and this has to do with a pattern of thinking mind the Iraqi politician who lacks.

First placed priorities; political mind who does not care placed priorities, priority now in Iraq is a priority to build the Iraqi state. Without strong institutional state-building with the citizen can not women's organizations to achieve their objectives. Civil society organizations for young people also can not, political parties of various programs can not achieve its goals. On the mind of the Iraqi political priorities that cares and respects the priority of state building.

Second: the mind lacks the Iraqi political dimension of thinking is the future, is working on the basis of laws or systems do not have a future dimension. I call the current situation of the Iraqi neighborhoods governed by the dead. If patients are being treated with drugs themselves take effect (see Okspa), the mind of the Iraqi political (and Qaa) and not realistic, and not Maazavi future.

A. Shihab: and perhaps Hzawa.

D. Amer: Yes to Hzawa also.

Third: the Iraqi mind dealing with things out of the challenge and resistance, and not out of handle. We need to deal culture and not to challenge the culture

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